A. Flights on Emirates and Partners
Emirates Flights- Use their Miles Calculator.
Partner Airlines- You can see each earn rate for each partner here.
B. Transfer Partners
Emirates is a 1 to 1 transfer partner with American Express Membership Rewards. You can also transfer from Marriott at a 3 (Marriott) to 1 airline point transfer ratio. You can also get an additional 5,000 airline points bonus if you transfer in increments of 60,000 Marriott points. (e.g., 60,000 Marriott points become 25,000 airline points, whereas if you only transfer 59,000 Marriott points, you would only get 19,667 airline points).
Other ratios are Hyatt (5 to 2), IHG (5 to 1), and LeClub (2 to 1).
C. Other Ways
You can see the list of car rental, hotels, and shopping on Emirates' website.